Vanadium is studied as a typical transition element. The different oxidation states of vanadium and the corresponding colors are observed and then identified by means of a quantitative titration of vanadium (II) solution with cerium (IV) solution. The oxidation states and the observed colors are correlated with the electronic structures using an orbital board. The reaction with hydroxide ion and the formation of complex ions containing vanadium in different oxidation states are demonstrated. The variations in chemical properties are discussed in terms of ion size and charge density.
Audio/Visual sound, color
Collaborator: Professor Robert Brasted, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.